How Cold Fusion Works
Basics of how cold fusion works
The picture above shows a cold fusion machine which has 4 platinum anodes and inside the tubes are coils of platinum (around the sides of the device); and one main Palladium cathode (within the middle).
Stage 1 – Setup & Materials
A voltage is applied to two electrodes which are immersed within an electrolytic solution. This solution contains:
Deuterium oxide, is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen-isotope deuterium, (also known as heavy hydrogen) rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.
Lithium carbonate is an inorganic compound. This white salt is widely used in the processing of metal oxides and has received attention for the treatment of bipolar disorder. It exists as the rare mineral zabuyelite.
The two electrodes are:
- Palladium – Cathode (negatively charged)
- Platinum – Annode (positively charged)
Having these electrodes immersed within the solution and a voltage added to both, establishes a flow of current within strip of Palladium (acting as the cathode) to the platinum coils (acting as the anode) using electromagnetic induction these are going to separate the deuterium oxide.
Temperature sensors can be used to measure the heat to understand the power output of this process and for safety procedures. These sensors would be located upon the inside of the solution and the surrounding water coolant.
Stage 2 – How This Works
Due to the voltage being supplied to the electrodes this creates an electromotive field. The Deuterium oxide molecule ( 1 oxygen + 2 Deuterium = ODD = Deuterium oxide ) begin to dissociate themselves from each other breaking apart within the field, leaving OD- (1 oxygen + 1 deuterium negative ion) and D+ ( 1 deuterium positive ion).
This is then leaves the OD- ions to be attracted to the positively charged platinum anodes, here they lose an electron and combine with other OD- ions to reform back into Deuterium oxide .
However when they reform back into this they can leave an oxygen molecule behind as the two OD- ions can only hold one oxygen molecule to make ODD, these oxygen molecules will then combine to form 02 which will rise to the top of the tank and escape.
Meanwhile while this is happening the D+ ions are attracted to the negative charged Palladium, to neutralize their charge.
It’s the structure of the Palladium that makes this all happen, as it’s a face center cubic lattice structure, shown in picture of this is below the D+ can move into it, an example of a lattice structure is below:
When the D+ ions get to this point they can either do two thing’s:
- They can make their way into the lattice structure moving into the inter-atomic space within the Palladium lattice structure.
- Bump into each other along the surface of the Palladium cathode and form into D2 molecule that’s too big to enter the interatomic space within the Palladium. They will then rise up as bubbles within the electrolyte solution.
At the same time all this is happening this process continues on the outside, (repeating) with the continued dissociation of the deuterium oxide ions as long as this voltage is applied.
“SuperWaves are multiple fractal nested waves of varying amplitudes and frequencies of current”
Varying the amplitude of AC oscillations applied to the electrodes this dramatically increases the loading rate of D+ ions to the Palladium cathode as well as the OD- ions to the anodes.
Initiation of Cold Fusion
Due to the speed up of this process using the SuperWave principle the D+ ions moving into the interatomic space within Palladium cathode lattice increases. With the D+ moving deeper into the lattice structure until the Palladium reaches a saturation point, this point is when every D+ ion accompanies all interatomic space within the Palladium lattice structure.
Once the Palladium cathode is at saturation, the material will expand mechanically due to the increase in D+ ions, it’s at this critical point of the material where it causes mechanical stress and a high resistance upon the D+ ions, as the Palladium stretches to accompany all of the D+ now within it.
At this point they will begin to move in synchronous movements, starting off with only one or two D+ ions moving to the collective of all the D+ ions over time. This high resistance of the now saturated lattice of the Palladium and resistance of returning to its original size pushing the D+ ions together; forcing them to fuse with one another creating the now new element helium 4 isotope. A massive amount of heat is produced when fusion occurs, as the breaking down of the valence shells of the old D+ to make a complete new substance.
This then creates more room inside of the Palladium lattice forcing more D+ ions inside and forcing the Palladium to begin to expand and contract forcing further fusion of D+ which in turn will heat the Palladium to very high temperatures due to the energy released during fusion which is absorbed into the Palladium lattuice structure. An endothermic system can then be applied, to capture the thermal radiation given and convert it to usable power.
This is where the power would be harvested from this method.
The video below can help further your understanding